American Assassination of General Soleimani: Repercussions for Region and Beyond

American Assassination of General Soleimani: Repercussions for Region and Beyond

Published on: Jan 10, 2020

3rd January 2020 witnessed a watershed event as American forces in a kinetic strike, assassinated General Qassem Soleimani, Head of Quds Force of Iranian Revolutionary Guard and Jamal Jaafar Ibrahimi, commonly known as Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, Deputy Head of Popular Mobilization Forces (PMFs) of Iraqi Army as the former landed in Baghdad to meet Iraqi premier. Immediately after the assassination, America officially confirmed the incident by declaring it as a pre-emptive strike in self-defense. Secretary of State Pompeo described the act as defensive action to protect United States (U.S) personnel and interests abroad. He repeatedly reaffirmed in number of tweets U.S resolve to stay committed to de-escalation in the region. American decision to assassinate a serving General, visiting another sovereign country to meet its Prime Minister (as announced by Iraq Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi himself) is considered by many as a reckless violation of international law and an effort to disrupt the international system to garner domestic support in the wake of upcoming U.S General Elections and ongoing impeachment process.

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Before the conflict erupted in 2014 Yemen was showing progress in education. Primary gross enrollment

stood at

73% in 1999 and was as high as 97.49% in 20133. In the same period girls’ education also grew

from 52% to 92% in the same period. The four years of conflict has reversed the progress and done further

damage to education in Yemen.4

Yemen  became  the  worst  place  for  contagious  diseases  since  the  conflict  began  and  health  services

diminished. Lack of access to clean drinking water and sanitation led to the worst outbreak of cholera in

2017 and claimed life of thousands. Similarly, the population of Yemen is continuously falling victim to

other diseases. About half of the country’s health facilities have been shut down in the five years of

conflict.6

Population in need of humanitarian assistance

24 million (about 80% of total 

        population)

Population with no access to clean water

19 million 70% approx.

and sanitation

Population with no access to adequate healthcare

19.7 million 70 % approx.

Victims of waterborne diseases and lack of sanitation  1.2 million (58% are children)

Population dead due to cholera since 2017

2,500

Dialysis patients died since 2015

25%

People diagnosed with cancer annually

40,000, including 6,000 children

Women and children suffering from

80,000

psychological problems

Civilians

paralyzed

     9,835 (800 children)

Education Under Attack in Yemen2

Growing Health Insecurity in Yemen

Statistics

789

Total schools 

out of use

Damaged in war Closed down

Used for 

shelter

Out of school 

children

Risk of 

dropping out

 

Schools 

rehabilitated 

since 2015

67%

7%

27%

2,500

2

million

3.7

million

5

1,300

Four years of conflict and pounding of bombs from sky and land dealt a mighty blow to the infrastructure

of Yemen. Yemen is the poorest country in Middle East and the damage to roads, bridges and buildings

has been estimated in billions of dollars.

1 https://medical-facilities.yemeniarchive.org/

2 https://www.unicef.org/mena/media/1911/file/YMN-Report-2018.pdf.pdf

3 https://tradingeconomics.com/yemen/school-enrollment-primary-percent-gross-wb-data.html

4 https://www.ye.undp.org/content/dam/yemen/General/Docs/ImpactOfWarOnDevelopmentInYemen.pdf

5 https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/school-year-starts-yemen-2-million-children-are-out-school-and-another-37-million

6 https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1051521

7 https://www.projecthope.org/crisis-in-yemen/09/2019/

8 https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2019/12/21/614231/80,000-Yemeni-children-suffer-from-persistent-trauma,-psychological-disorders:-Ministry

9 http://almasirah.net/details.php?es_id=48575&cat_id=3

10 https://www.acleddata.com/2019/10/31/press-release-over-100000-reported-killed-in-yemen-war/

11 http://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR%20Yemen%20Fact%20sheet%20-%20January%202019.pdf

12 http://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR%20Yemen%20Fact%20sheet%20-%20January%202019.pdf

13 https://www.yemendataproject.org/

14 https://www.yemendataproject.org/

15 https://www.savethechildren.org/us/about-us/media-and-news/2018-press-releases/yemen-85000-children-may-have-died-from-starvation

16 https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/yemen-crisis

17 https://www.projecthope.org/crisis-in-yemen/09/2019/

18 https://www.projecthope.org/crisis-in-yemen/09/2019/

19 https://www.usaid.gov/yemen/fact-sheets/health-fact-sheet

20 https://www.projecthope.org/crisis-in-yemen/09/2019/

21 https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/03/yemen-airstrikes-saudi-arabia-mbs-us

22 https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/06/30/targeting-saada/unlawful-coalition-airstrikes-saada-city-yemen

23 https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/07/27/yemen-coalition-strikes-residence-apparent-war-crime

24 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/29/death-toll-from-airstrike-on-yemen-wedding-hits-131

25 https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/specialseries/2018/12/yemen-saada-bus-bombing-181221224132671.html

26 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/04/saudi-led-air-raids-kill-11-civilians-yemen-sanaa-190407201257046.html

27 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-security/attack-on-yemen-market-kills-more-than-10-warring-parties-trade-blame-idUSKCN1UO1SR

28 https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2019/12/25/614560/Sa%E2%80%99ada-strike-flagrant-violation-of-international-human-rights-laws:-Yemeni-Ministry

29 https://en.irna.ir/news/83261327/Saudi-coalition-destroys-5-000-km-of-roads-in-Yemen

30 http://www.investinyemen.org/content.php?c=11&langid=2&pageid=3

31 https://en.irna.ir/news/83261327/Saudi-coalition-destroys-5-000-km-of-roads-in-Yemen

Infrastructure Destroyed

References

Overall estimated damage to infrastructure

$3.29 billion

29

Total length of roads in Yemen

71,300 km

30

(including 6,200 km

paved roads)

Roads destroyed

5,000 km

31

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Research by:  Siffat Ali – Research Associate

Designed by:  Fatima Sureyya – Web/Graphic Designer

In  war,  whoever  wins,  civilians  pay  the  price.  The  prolonged  conflict  in  Yemen  has  seen  a  staggering

number of people killed and an even bigger number of people displaced.

Human Cost of Yemen Conflict10

Elsewhere, condition of food security is no better than rest of the humanitarian needs in Yemen. Reports

coming out from Yemen reveal the gravity of issue. Blockade and continuous violence has created ample

food scarcity and data show the severity of it.

Food Security in Yemen

Death toll since

2015

100,000

Internally displaced persons

3.3  million

11

Returnees

1 million

12

Direct civilian targeting attacks

4,900

Total civilian casualties

18,346

13

Civilian casualttes from direct violence

12,000

(Saudi-led coalition responsible for

67% while Houthis responsible for 16%)

Civilian casualties through direct Saudi-led

8,000

coalition

(of which 67% came from airstrikes)

Civilian casualties from Houthis and allies

2,000

Civilian casualties

2019

1,100

People killed

2019

20,000

Most deaths and violence reported in

Taiz, Hodieda and Jawf

(10,000 people killed in each since 2015)

Saudi-led coalition air raids

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