By Muhammad Suleman

Update:- July 28, 2017

Israel has not officially confirmed that it has nuclear weapons and maintains that it will not be the ‘first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the Middle East’. However the existence of Israeli nuclear weapons is a “public secret” by now due to the declassification of large numbers of formerly highly classified US government documents which show that the United States by 1975 was convinced that Israel had nuclear weapons.

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By Muhammad Suleman

Update:- July 28, 2017

The United Kingdom’s involvement in nuclear energy and weapons development dates back to 1940 when two émigré scientists based in England, Otto Frisch and Fritz Peierls, laid the conceptual groundwork for the atomic bomb.

Initially conducting its own research, the United Kingdom later sent several scientists to Los Alamos to contribute to the Manhattan Project. Following the war, and the passing of the Atomic Energy Act in the United States, the United Kingdom decided to pursue its own nuclear weapons program. This program was led by William G. Penney—a British scientist who worked on the Manhattan Project. Penney’s position at Los Alamos Laboratory equipped him with the tacit knowledge needed for a successful nuclear program.

chart

 

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By Muhammad Suleman

Update:- July 28, 2017

Soviet Union carried out its initial research on nuclear fission in the 1930s – the country’s nuclear weapons program began as a wartime intelligence operation that gathered information on atomic activities in the United States and Nazi Germany. This was coupled with modest research efforts in small-scale Soviet laboratories from 1943 onwards. Research carried out prior to World War II by individuals such as IuliyKhariton and IakovZeldovich, made little impact outside the Soviet Union, and did not enjoy significant government backing. Only in July 1940 did Soviet scientists alert the government to the possible military applications of nuclear fission.

chart Nuclear Russia

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By Muhammad Suleman

Update:- July 28, 2017

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was set up in 1956 so that it could participate in the Atoms for Peace programme launched by U.S. President Eisenhower. In 1960, the U.S. gave Pakistan a $350,000 grant to help prepare the country for its first research reactor which America agreed to supply two years later. This reactor, a 5 MW light-water research reactor known as the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor (PARR-1), began operating in 1965 at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in Nilore, near Islamabad. In 1963, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto became the foreign minister, carrying his interest in nuclear capabilities into office with him. He watched with growing concern as China moved closer to nuclear capability, and in response India’s domestic rhetoric on the subject grew more bellicose. In 1971, the Canadian General Electric Co. completed a 137 MW (electrical) CANDU power reactor for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) which went critical in August 1971 and began commercial operation in October 1972.

Pakistan Nuclear Chart

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By Muhammad Suleman

Update:- July 28, 2017

The science of atomic radiation, atomic change and nuclear fission was developed from 1895 to 1945, much of it in the last six of those years. Over 1939-45, most development was focused on the atomic bomb. From 1945 attention was given to harnessing this energy in a controlled fashion for naval propulsion and for making electricity. Since 1956 the prime focus has been on the technological evolution of reliable nuclear power plants.

US Nuclear cahrt

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