(Muhammad Suleman )
There is no common definition of the “strategic stability” on which all international political’ scholars agree. Almost every writer describes it in his own way. Generally, stability can be defined as the equal military balance among two rivals. However, in the broader context, the stability can be defined as a situation among two rival countries, strong enough militarily, politically but economically and where each would not be in position to launch first strike on other’s strategic forces. Thomas Schelling and Morton Halperin define the strategic stability in their book “Strategy and Arms Control”. According to them, “stability is a situation in which chances of war are very low because both sides possess no motivation to strike first and this calculation or estimation is “reasonable, secure against shocks, alarms and perturbations.” According to some eminent experts, stability is defined as, “the absence of armed conflict between nuclear-armed states;” and broadly as, “a regional or global security environment in which states enjoys peaceful and harmonious relations.
Crisis and arms race stability are two main ingredients of strategic stability. Crisis stability can be defined as a condition, where neither side perceives an advantage to initiate the first strike due to the fear of nuclear retaliation. While the arms race stability is due to the lack of perceived motivation to expand a nuclear force out of distress which in a crisis enemy takes advantage of a meaningful benefit by using the nuclear weapons first.
Nuclear technology employs the energy released by cracking the particles of different elements. Making such energy started in the 1940s, and during the Second World War, a study was conducted, primarily envisaging making weapons by splitting the atoms of particular isotopes of uranium or plutonium.
In the 1950s, concentration turned to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, remarkably for power production. Today, the world creates as much electricity from nuclear energy as it generated from all resource collectively in 1960. At present, only nine states are known to have nuclear arsenals potential. Fifty-six states operate about 240 civil research reactors, more than one-third of these reactors are in developing countries.
By Muhammad Suleman
Jun 17, 2015
On December 16, 2014, terrorists attacked the Army Public School Peshawar, as a result of which 149 people – mostly school children and teaching staff – were martyred. The shock of this horrific incident was felt in the entire world, and compelled the civilian and military leadership of the country to take every possible action to dismantle this menace permanently. In this context, the very next day the Prime Minister of Pakistan lifted the moratorium on death penalty in terror-related cases, with the approval and consensus of other major political parties. On December 24, 2014, an All Parties Conference (APC) meeting was held in Peshawar, chaired by the Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif himself; the meeting concluded with a unanimous agreement by all political parties on a twenty-point ‘National Action Plan (NAP)’ to curb the threat of terrorism from the country.
Up till June 16, 2015, more than a 100 inmates that had been convicted by the various courts – military, civilian courts and ATCs – have been hung across the country. In this context, 33 percent of the convicted who have been executed were sentenced by civilian courts such as the session courts, district courts etc. Likewise, another 28 percent were convicted by the ATCs, and 7 percent from military courts via court-martials, while the convictions of another 32 percent could not be identified through the existent database of available sources.
(Muhammad Suleman )
The terrorist attack on the APS schoolchildren in Peshawar is one of the greatest tragedies of Pakistan’s history. In response to that attack, the government of Pakistan announced a 20 point ‘National Action Plan’ to curb militancy across the country. This paper is an attempt to analyse the twenty points and progress made on each of these points by the government since their adoption. The role of the civilian government and military actions are also discussed. The shortcomings and challenges with which the 20 points will be confronted have also been raised in this paper. At the end, recommendations have been made to make the NAP more effective to diminish terrorism from the country.
Afghanistan has been facing militancy in its country for the last four decades and its spillover has also affected its neighboring countries. Both Pakistan and Afghanistan has mistrust and misconception against each other. The newly elected governments of Kabul, unlike their previous government, is focusing on establishing good relations with their immediate neighbors and try to get rid of all kinds of mistrust and misconceptions. This paper is an attempt to examine the current relations of Pakistan and Afghanistan and try to find out what sort of challenges they may face. Keeping in view the whole scenario of Pakistan Afghanistan situation some suggestions are also made.
By (Muhammad Suleman & Saadat Hassan Bilal)
Feb 16, 2015
The present age of civilization has witnessed the growing number of States that are trying to meet their future energy needs by inclining towards nuclear power. Such nuclear power brings with it the hazards of capability with military purposes too. The next Review Conference (Revcon) which will be held from 27 April to 22 May 2015 at UN Headquarters in New York, would have to deal with a number of issues such as nuclear disarmament, Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, Negative Security Assurances and commitments agreed by State Parties to‘64 Action Plan’ agenda given by the 2010 NPT RevCon.
This paper revolves around the functioning of the electronic media in Pakistan and its role in last year’s political crisis. The paper questions whether the electronic media in the country is functioning as a source of independent reporting or pursuing various agendas. The role of the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulation Authority (PEMRA) has also been discussed at length. A case study of Pakistan’s two leading media corporations has also been made which proves the assertion that the electronic media did, indeed, go haywire as far as the dharna (sit-in) crisis was concerned.
This paper revolves around the topic of integrating South Asia through trade, economy, physical and soft connectivity focusing on how these factors can contribute to peace, prosperity and stability of this region. This paper unfolds the current situation, challenges, areas of mutual cooperation via concrete recommendations of enhancing trade, investment, production and infrastructure connectivity. That would further help in promote cooperation and integration of the region with other parts of the world for catalyzing the socioeconomic transformation. Moreover, the policy recommendations will generate increased intraregional trade and reduce their dependence on advanced economies.
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