This initiative is a multilateral partnership with the membership of 82 states, along with four international entities namely IAEA, EU, INTERPOL and UNDOC. All these entities are committed to employing shared nuclear security principles with increased collaboration.
The initiative was launched to enhance the global capacity to curb the threat of nuclear terrorism. Through the development of certain nuclear security measures to prevent, detect & respond to nuclear security related issues. USA-Russia are Co-Chairs, while Spain is Coordinator of the Implementation and Assessment Group (IAG).
The GICNT collaborators have conducted fifty multilateral activities and also seven high profile meetings to strengthen global nuclear security.
Although this document is neither treaty nor convention, it can nonetheless be termed as a cornerstone of nuclear security. It carries IAEA guidelines and recommendations to protect nuclear facilities and nuclear materials against intentional cases of theft, sabotage or mishandling during transportation. There are no signatories or acceded states for this document but wherever the peaceful use of nuclear energy is in practice these guidelines are abided with their true spirit.
The 2011 version (Rev.5) is basically designed to cope with emerging threats to nuclear materials like “nuclear terrorism”. This version of this document introduces new standards for nuclear security with compliance to CPPNM (2005).
This resolution is unique as it legally binds all UN member states to constitute national law to prohibit any unlawful activity by non-state actors related to WMDs and their means of delivery. This UNSC resolution strengthens the concept of nuclear security as under its obligation, all member states are now taking serious measures to deny any kind of access to WMDs for non-state actors at all levels under their jurisdiction. It therefore has a crucial role in nuclear security and prohibits all kind of illicit trafficking of “nuclear materials” as well.
The convention was signed in 1980 and entered into force in February 1987. It was specifically adopted to launch certain arrangements to guard nuclear materials. This convention lay out well-defined legal obligations on its States Parties (145) to take measures for the prevention, detection and punishment of offenses with regard to nuclear material.
On July 8th, 2005 all its states parties adopted an “amendment” to further cover the international transport of nuclear material, domestic nuclear facilities and nuclear materials along with their storage and transport.
This amendment obliges its states parties to expand their cooperation to take measures, to locate and recover stolen/smuggled nuclear material. This amendment also urges on its states parties for better cooperation to curb and mitigate any kind of radiological consequences after sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. This amendment is yet to enter into force, following the ratification of a qualified majority (2/3) of its State Parties.
UNGA adopted the ICSANT in April 2005, and a worth-mentioning figure of 115 states signed it. In the years that have followed, 77 states have ratified the ICSANT. This has brought it into effect since July 2007.
This convention legally binds all its States Parties to formulate national laws and to impose punitive legal actions, under their respective criminal laws, upon all individuals involved in the act of nuclear terrorism or related activities.
The manufacture, possession and use of nuclear/radiological material with the intent to harm people, property, environment and also any intentional action which causes damage to and release of nuclear and radioactive material will be hereinafter considered a crime.
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